The 2-Tone ska revival emerged during the late 1970s from the English Midlands. It was forged by British Jamaicans, mods and punks who adapted the native sounds of Kingston (circa 1960) with a new edge. While the Specials -- led by Jerry Dammers and Terry Hall -- were the first to forge British ska, their record label, 2-Tone (the movement's namesake), was at the epicenter of this cultural collision. The biggest acts -- the Beat (later known as the English Beat), the Selecter and even the commercially successful Madness -- all released material on the label. Important historically was Judge Dread, who played mostly novelty reggae and rocksteady but was the first non-Jamaican to adopt the island's sound with great commercial success; he helped pave the way for English ska. Though not part of the original 2-Tone movement, American third-wave ska bands of the early '80s, like the Untouchables, Toasters and Fishbone, carried the torch of sound across the Atlantic.