Classical Arabic music spans the Middle East and North Africa, with Egypt as its axis and focal point. The style developed in nomadic times as a sort of sonic shot in the arm for weary travelers and hedonistic pagan celebrations, surging back into cultural consciousness in the 1800s as Egypt and other Arab countries experienced renewed cultural pride during anti-colonial movements. Two distinct schools of practice had formed (one centered in Baghdad, the other in Moorish Spain), each displaying melancholy, yearning vocals and extended, tragic storylines. Vocalists such as Lebanon's exiled Fairuz, Egypt's Mohamed Abd El-Wahaab and Oum Kaltoum dominated the twentieth century, aided by the rise of recording technology and riveting live performances. Never fearful of innovation, Classical Arabic accompanists seized western instruments, crafting large-scale orchestras to richly supplement the sound while fully retaining their eastern flavor.